What is a major determinant of the resting membrane potential necessary for transmission of nerve impulses? The ratio between intracellular K+ and extracellular Na+


Question 1

2 / 2 pts

What is a major determinant of the resting membrane potential necessary for transmission of nerve impulses?

The ratio between intracellular K+ and extracellular Na+

The ratio between intracellular Na+ and extracellular K+

The ratio between intracellular Na+ and extracellular sodium

The ratio between intracellular K+ and extracellular potassium

Question 2

2 / 2 pts

Chvostek sign and Trousseau sign indicate





Question 3

2 / 2 pts

Physiologic pH is maintained around 7.4 because bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) exist in a ratio of





Question 4

2 / 2 pts

Water movement between the intracellular fluid compartment and the extracellular compartment is primarily a function of

osmotic forces.

antidiuretic hormone.

hydrostatic forces.

plasma oncotic pressure.

Question 5

2 / 2 pts

Which are indications of dehydration?

Tachycardia and weight loss

Muscle weakness and decreased deep tendon reflexes

Polyuria and hyperventilation

Decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit

Question 6

2 / 2 pts

At the arterial end of capillaries, fluid moves from the intravascular space into the interstitial space because the

capillary oncotic pressure is lower than the interstitial hydrostatic pressure.

capillary hydrostatic pressure is higher than the capillary oncotic pressure.

interstitial hydrostatic pressure is higher than the capillary hydrostatic pressure.

interstitial oncotic pressure is higher than the interstitial hydrostatic pressure.

Question 7

2 / 2 pts

In hyperkalemia, cardiac rhythm changes are a direct result of

cardiac cell repolarization.

depression of the sinoatrial (SA) node.

cardiac cell hypopolarization.

cardiac cell hyperexcitability.

Question 8

2 / 2 pts

Clinical manifestations that include unexplained weight loss, dyspnea on exertion, use of accessory muscles, and tachypnea with prolonged expiration are indicative of

chronic bronchitis.




Question 9

2 / 2 pts

In ARDS, alveoli and respiratory bronchioles fill with fluid as a result of the

compression on the pores of Kohn, thus preventing collateral ventilation.

inactivation of surfactant and the impairment of type II alveolar cells.

increased capillary hydrostatic pressure that forces fluid into the alveoli and respiratory bronchioles.

increased capillary permeability, which causes alveoli and respiratory bronchioles to fill with fluid.

Question 10

2 / 2 pts

Pulmonary edema usually begins at a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or left atrial pressure of _____ mm Hg.





Question 11

2 / 2 pts

The most successful treatment for chronic asthma begins with

drugs that reduce bronchospasm.

broad-spectrum antibiotics.

elimination of the causative agent.

drugs that decrease airway inflammation.

Question 12

2 / 2 pts

High altitudes may produce hypoxemia through

decreased inspired oxygen.

diffusion abnormalities.



Question 13

2 / 2 pts

Which pleural abnormality involves a site of pleural rupture that act as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing during expiration?

Open pneumothorax

Secondary pneumothorax

Tension pneumothorax

Spontaneous pneumothorax

Question 14

2 / 2 pts

Clinical manifestations of pulmonary hypertension include

dyspnea on exertion and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.

productive cough and rhonchi bilaterally.

peripheral edema and jugular venous distention.

systemic blood pressure greater than 130/90.

Question 15

2 / 2 pts

In tuberculosis, the body walls off the bacilli in a tubercle by stimulating which action?

macrophages that release TNF-alpha (TNF-α)

apoptotic infected macrophages that activate cytotoxic T cells.

phagocytosis by neutrophils and eosinophils.

formation of immunoglobulin G to initiate the complement cascade.

Question 16

2 / 2 pts

A(n) _____ is a circumscribed area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma.





Question 17

2 / 2 pts

_____ is a fulminant form of respiratory failure characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury.


Acute pulmonary edema

Pulmonary emboli

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Question 18

0 / 2 pts

Dyspnea is not a result of

fatigue of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm.

decreased pH, increased PaCO2, and decreased PaO2.

stimulation of stretch or J-receptors.

decreased blood flow to the medulla oblongata.

Question 19

2 / 2 pts

The release of fibroblast growth factors affects ARDS by causing

disruption of alveolocapillary membrane.

pulmonary fibrosis.

pulmonary hypertension.

atelectasis and decreased lung compliance.

Question 20

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following types of croup is most common?





Question 21

2 / 2 pts

Chest wall compliance in infants is _____ in adults.

unlike that

lower than

higher than

the same as

Question 22

2 / 2 pts

What is the primary cause of RDS of the newborn?


An immature immune system

Small alveoli

A surfactant deficiency

Question 23

0 / 2 pts

Which of the following statements about the advances in the treatment of RDS of the newborn is incorrect?

Treatment includes the instillation of exogenous surfactant down an endotracheal tube of infants weighing less than 1,000 g.

Administering glucocorticoids to women in preterm labor accelerates the maturation of the fetus’s lungs.

Supporting the infant’s respiratory function by using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). An infant’s respiratory function is supported by using continuous pressure (CPAP).

Administering oxygen to mothers during preterm labor increases their arterial oxygen before birth of the fetus.

Administration of oxygen to the mother is not a valid treatment of RDS.

Question 24

2 / 2 pts

Which immunoglobulin is present in childhood asthma?





Included in the long list of asthma-associated genes are those that code for increased levels of immune and inflammatory mediators (e.g., IL-4, IgE, and leukotrienes), nitric oxide, and transmembrane proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Question 25

2 / 2 pts

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a(n)

autosomal dominant inheritance.

autosomal recessive inheritance.




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